History of Solar Cell Size Evolution

History of Solar Cell Size Evolution

The larger the size of the solar cell, the higher the power and the lower the cost, has led the silicon industry to continuously introduce large-size wafers, ranging in size from M2, M4, G1, M6 to M12 (G12).

– Before 2010, monocrystalline silicon wafers were dominated by 125mm x 125mm width (165mm silicon ingot diameter) and only a small number at 156mm x 156mm (200mm silicon ingot diameter).

– After 2010, 156mm x 156mm wafers increasingly became the popular choice (lower cost per-watt) for P-Type monocrystalline and multicrystalline wafer sizes.

– By the end of 2013, a number of producers jointly issued the standards for M2 (156.75mm x 156.75mm) P-Type mono wafers (205mm diameter silicon ingot) and M2 (156.75mm x 156.75mm) P-Type mono wafers (210mm diameter silicon ingot).

– During that period of 2013, there were also a few M4 (161.7mm x 161.7mm) (211mm diameter silicon ingot) wafers on the market.

– In 2016, the move from 156mm x 156mm to the larger formats of 156.75mm x 156.75mm in mass production began.

– During 2018 to 2019, G1 (square wafer 158.75mmx158.75mm) was inaugurated to the market and adopted by some solar cell manufacturers.

– During 2019 to 2020, M6 (166mm x 166mm) P-Type mono wafers (223mm diameter silicon ingot) was lauched. The 6″ format M2 (156.75mm x 156.75mm) was expected to be placed by G1 and M6. In the same period of 2019, M12(G12) M10 M9 were launched and would be industralized in year 2020.

– During 2020 to 2023, M10 (182mm x 182mm) and M12 (210mm x 210mm) , the mono multiple bus bar and half-cut will dominate the market.

1 Type Of Monocrystalline Silicon Solar wafer

M12 M10 M9 M6 G1 M4 M2
L, 210mm

D, 295mm

L, 200mm

D, 281mm

L, 192mm

D, 270mm

L, 166mm

D, 223mm

L, 158.75mm

D, 223mm

L, 161.7mm

D, 211mm

L, 156.75mm

D, 210mm

Note: L= length; D=Diameter

2 Dimension of PV Cells

3 Area Of Wafer

M12(G12) M10 M9 M6 G1 M4 M2
44096mm2 399976mm2 36862mm2 27415mm2 25199mm2 25825mm2 244316mm2

4 Solar Cell Power And Solar Module Power Based On Various Wafers

Cell Based On Wafer Cell Power (watt )(Efficiency=22.5%) Module (Watt) made of 50 cells Module (Watt) made of 100 half-cut cells Module (Watt) made of 60 cells Module (Watt) made of 120 half-cut cells
M12 9.92 486 501 583 601
M10 9.00 441 454 529 545
M9 8.29 406 419 488 502
M6 6.17 302 311 363 374
G1 5.67 278 286 333 343
M4 5.81 285 293 342 352
M2 5.50 269 277 323 333
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